Chinese Medical Information Portal Website (Taiwan Medical Network-TMN) - OldDoc Wu's Series
(Established in March 1996)
Dr. Wu's Liver diseases
|Viral hepatits -- History |
for professionals (medical students and residents)
(Posted Sep. 16, 1996; Updated May 14, 2009)
Viral hepatits -- History
(Key words: viral hepatitis, history)
- Jaundice (yellowish color change of skin and mucous membrane) was described by Hippocrates.
- Its infectious nature was suggested in the 8thcentury and outbreaks of epidemics occurred in military and civilian populations during the war in the 17th ~ 19thcenturies.
- There are two modes of transmission, blood-born and fecal-oral routes.
- Up to now, 5 kinds (A, B, C, D, and E) of hepatitis viruses are identified to cause difinite liver disease.
- For detail, refer to the followings in the "for professionals" section.
- Jaundice: described by Hippocrates.
- Infectious nature: suggested in the 8th century.
- Outbreaks of epidemics of jaundice: occurred in military and
civilian populations during the war in the 17th ~ 19th
centuries. (i.e. viral hepatitis A).
- Lurman (1883): reported outbreaks of serum hepatitis following
vaccination of dockers.
- McDonald (1908): postulated that the infectious jaundice is caused by
- WWII(1939 ~ 1945): a series of outbreaks after vaccination for measles and yellow
- Mac Callum (1947): classified viral hepatitis into two types,
- Viral hepatitis A ----- Infectious hepatitis
- Viral hepatitis B ----- Serum hepatitis
- Blumberg (1965): discovered Australia antigen (HBsAg) in aborigines of Australia and showed
that the antigen was present at high frequency in patients with
leukemia and in children with Down's syndrome.
- Dane (1970): discovered Dane particle (complete HBV particle).
- Magnius (1972): discovered HBeAg
- Feinstone, Purcell (1973): identified HAV.
- Rizzetto (1977): described delta antigen (HDV).
- Balayan (1983) : discovery of HEV.
- 1955-56, massive epidemic of water-borne hepatitis occurred in Delhi, India.
- Chiron group (Choo, Kuo, Houghton) (1988) : cloned and identified
- Abbott group (1995) : reported GB Virus-C (GBV-C), and Genelabs group
(1996): reported Hepatitis G virus (HGV) ----- GBV-C=HGV
- Chang's group at NTUH (1996) : reported (JAMA) successful prevention of HBV infection by nation-wide vaccination on newborn babies launched in 1984 in Taiwan.
- Chang's group at NTUH (1997) : reported (NEJM) decrease in annual incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma in children ascribed to nation-wide vaccination against HBV on newborn babies lauched in 1984 in Taiwan.
- Nishizawa (1997) : identified TTV
- DiaSorin Inc. (1999) : reported discovery of SEN-V
- At present : (2004)
Hepatitis virus A, B, C, D, E, and G; TTV, and SEN-V
- Route of transmission :
- Fecal-oral ----- A and E, (TTV ?)
- Blood-born ----- B, C, D, G, TTV, and SEN-V
- F hepatitis (?) (1994) : reported to be a variant of HBV in Japan.
- Vaccination :
- B and A : available now.
- C, D, E and G : not available yet.
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(By Jau-Shin Wu, M.D.; Posted Sep. 16, 1996; Revised May 12, 2009)
(TMN) Since June 09, 2002
(Dr. Wu's Liver D) Since Jan. 01, 2008
(Olddoc)Since Jan. 01, 2008
(TMN) Since Jan. 01, 2008